# Ten-frame game (addition and subtraction)

#### Learning objective

Players (4-6 years old) visually recognise and evaluate small sets of objects (0-10). Through using a holistic structured analysis of pictures, players can potentially develop elementary calculation strategies (counting, adding up, compensation, nearest known number, and grouping) in connection with the base-10 numerical system. The game offers a possibility to work the composition of numbers up to 10 (5=1+4=0+5=2+3…).

#### Preparation

Print, laminate, and cut out playing cards. There are 22 cards in total. You can select the level of difficulty (green, yellow, or red) or pairs of cards (numbers) you want to play with. Each ten-frame presents a frame of 10 spots (two rows of 5) containing 0 to 10 pictures (squirrel or bunny) in colored circles. Thus, each playing card represents a number from 0 to 10. Using various dispositions and grouping by colors, students can count pictures in the frame in different ways. Do not hesitate to discuss these various calculation strategies with students!

If there are only two of you playing (the teacher and the student, for example), try to win not more than one third of all games (teacher-student ratio should be 1:2).

#### Game 1

Spread the picture cards facing down on the table. First player flip over 2 cards. If the two cards represent the same number, the player names the number and takes them for himself/herself and flips over 2 other cards. If the two numbers are not equal in value, the player flips them back facing down. Next player will play now. The goal of the game is to collect as many cards as you can.

#### Game 2

Before playing this game, you need to choose the game-number. You can choose any number from 2 to 10. For example, if you choose 5, you keep only the cards representing numbers from 0 to 5 for the game. Spread the picture cards facing down on the table. First player flips over 2 cards. If the two cards sum-up to 5, the player names the two numbers and the sum and takes the cards for himself/herself, and flips over two other cards. If the two cards do not make the selected game-number, the player flips them back facing down. Next player will play now. The goal of the game is to collect as many cards as you can.